Peyman Babashamsi, Nur Izzi Md Yusoff, Halil Ceylan, Nor Ghani Md Nor


As quality aggregate sources are depleted, there is a growing importance given to incorporating recycled co-products and waste materials (RCWMs) in new and rehabilitated pavements. An ideal goal would be using recycled materials to create long-lived, well-performing pavement and then being able to use those materials again at the end of their life to create new pavement, thereby effectively achieving a zero-waste highway construction stream. This would not only produce distinct cost advantages, but it would also significantly reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and eliminate the need for landfill disposal. Drawing from ISO standards and practices, this article reviews the recycling methods and definitions associated with the End-of-Life (EOL) phase and present various EOL considerations for asphalt pavements and the associated challenges to quantify EOL contribution in the pavement life cycle.


End- of- life (EOL) module, sustainable development, recycled co-product and waste material (RCWM), central plant recycling (CPR), full-depth reclamation (FDR)

Full Text:



Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2009. Recover Your Resources. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Project. EPA-560-F09-523. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Chesner, W., R. Collins, and M. MacKay. 1998. User Guidelines for Waste and By-Product Materials in Pavement Construction. FHWA-RD-97-148. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

Hansen K. R. and A. Copeland. 2013. Asphalt Pavement Industry Survey on Recycled Materials and Warm-Mix Asphalt Usage: 2009–2012. Information Series 138. National Asphalt Pavement Association, Lanham, MD.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2006. Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Requirements and Guidelines. ISO Standard 14044. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2015. Towards Sustainable Pavement Systems: A Reference Document. Report No. FHWA-HIF-15-002. January 2015. Washington, DC.

Horvath, A. 2004. A Life-Cycle Analysis Model and Decision-Support Tool for Selecting Recycled Versus Virgin Materials for Highway Applications. RMRC Research Project No 23. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

Babashamsi P., N. Izzi M. Y., Ceylan H. and N. Ghani M. N. 2015. Life Cycle Assessment For Pavement Sustainable Development: Critical Review. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 802: 333-338.

S. Rajendran, and J. A. Gambatese. 2007. Solid Waste Generation in Asphalt and Reinforced Concrete Roadway Life Cycles. Infrastructure Systems. 13: 88-96.

Ventura, P. Monéron, and A. Jullien. 2008. Environmental Impact of a Binding Course Pavement Section, with Asphalt Recycled at Varying Rates. Road Materials and Pavement Design. 9:319-338.

Hansen K. R. and A. Copeland. 2013. Asphalt Pavement Industry Survey on Recycled Materials and Warm-Mix Asphalt Usage: 2009–2012. Information Series 138. National Asphalt Pavement Association, Lanham, MD.

Bonaquist, R. 2011. Mix Design Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt. NCHRP Report 691. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Christensen, D. W. and R. F. Bonaquist. 2006. Volumetric Requirements for Superpave Mix Design. NCHRP Report 567. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Aurangzeb, Q. and I. Al-Qadi. 2014. Asphalt Pavements with High Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Content: Economic and Environmental Perspectives. Transportation Research Record 2456, Figure 3: 168. Copyright, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Reproduced with permission of the Transportation Research Board.

Aurangzeb Q., I. L. Al-Qadi, H. Ozer, and R. Yang. 2014. Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment for Asphalt Mixtures with High RAP Content. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Volume 83. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.

Brantley A. S. and T. G. Townsend. 1999. Leaching of Pollutants from Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. Environmental Engineering Science. 6: 2. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.

Horvath, A. 2003. Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Assessment of Using Recycled Materials for Asphalt Pavements. University of California Transportation Center, Berkeley, CA.

Legret M., L. Odie, D. Demare, and A. Jullien. 2005. Leaching of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. Water Research. 39: 15. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.

Al-Qadi, I. L., M. Elseifi, and S. H. Carpenter. 2007. Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement—a Literature Review. FHWA-ICT-07-001. Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL.

Thompson, M. R, L. Garcia, and S. H. Carpenter. 2009. Cold In-Place Recycling and Full-Depth Recycling with Asphalt Products. FHWA-ICT-09-036. Illinois Center for Transportation, Rantoul, IL.

Asphalt Academy. 2009. Technical Guidelines 2: A Guideline for the Design and Construction of Bitumen Emulsion and Foamed Bitumen Stabilized Materials. Second Edition. Bitumen Stabilized Materials. Asphalt Academy, Pretoria, South Africa.

Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association (ARRA). 2001. Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual. Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association, Annapolis, MD.

Stroup-Gardiner, M. 2011. Recycling and Reclamation of Asphalt Pavements Using In-Place Methods. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 421. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Wirtgen. 2004. Wirtgen Cold Recycling Manual. Second Edition. Wirtgen GmbH, Windhagen, Germany.

Jooste, F. and F. Long. 2007. A Knowledge Based Structural Design Method for Pavements Incorporating Bituminous Stabilized Materials. Draft Technical Memorandum. Gauteng Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works and Southern Africa Bitumen Association (SABITA), Pinelands, South Africa.

Jones, D., P. Fu, and J. T. Harvey. 2008. Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt in California: Guidelines for Project Selection, Design, and Construction. UCPRC-GL-2008-01 CA101069D. University of California Pavement Research Center, Berkeley, CA.

Fu, P., D. Jones, and J. T. Harvey. 2011. The Effects of Asphalt Binder and Granular Material Characteristics on Foamed Asphalt Mix Strength. Construction and Building Materials. 25(2). Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Dai, S., G. Skok, T. Westover, T. Labuz, and E. Lukanen. 2008. Pavement Rehabilitation Selection. Report No. MN/RC 2008-06. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN.

Berthelot, C., B. Marjerison, G. Houston, J. McCaig, S. Werrener, and R. Gorlick. 2007. Mechanistic Comparison of Cement- and Bituminous-Stabilized Granular Base Systems. Transportation Research Record 2026. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Smith, C. R., D. E. Lewis, and D. M. Jared. 2008. “Georgia’s Use of Lime in Full-Depth Reclamation.” Transportation Research Record 2059. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Bemanian, S., P. Polish, and G. Maurer. 2006. “Cold In-Place Recycling and Full-Depth Reclamation Projects by Nevada DOT: State of the Practice.” Transportation Research Record 1949. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Nantung, T., Y. Ji, and T. Shields. 2011. Pavement Structural Evaluation and Design of Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR) Pavement. Paper 11-2026, 2011 TRB Annual Meeting. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

SEM Materials. 2007. Guidelines for Asphalt Emulsion Full Depth Reclamation (FDR). Version2a-3. SEM Materials, Tulsa, OK.

California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). 2012. Full Depth Reclamation Using Foamed Asphalt. California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA.

Mallick, R. B., D. S. Bonner, R. L. Bradbury, J. O. Andrews, P. S. Kandhal, and E. J. Kearney. 2002. Evaluation of Performance of Full-Depth Reclamation Mixes. Transportation Research Record 1809. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.