Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob, Kho King Koh, Faizul Amri Adnan, Nasrudin Ismail, Badruzzaman Ahmad, Mohd Arif Ismail, Yiow Ru Vern


Sterilisation by heat can be a capital treatment for ballast water and waste heat from ship’s engines will be a good resource. Based on the waste heat availability on an operational tanker, a ballast water treatment system was envisaged including a shipboard heat exchanger for waste heat recovery. To verify the heat availability and the species’ mortalities, test rigs were arranged similar to shipboard arrangement. For assessing the smaller heat exchangers for the tests, designs were developed using Bell-Delaware approaches based on the shipboard heat exchanger design. The thermodynamic and geometric values were computed and the features of the commercially available and fitted heat exchangers were compared with the developed designs. Two commercially procured heat exchangers fitted on two separate engine test rigs were used for tests. The designs of commercially procured heat exchangers were close to the developed designs and were found to be suitable for the tests planned.


Ballast water treatment, exhaust gases, waste heat recovery, heat exchanger design

Full Text:



Status of Conventions. (11 July 2015) Retrieved from

Lloyd’s Register Report. 2011. Ballast Water Treatment Technology Current Status. 4th Edn. June 2011. 7-12.

Lloyd’s Register Report. 2012. Ballast Water Treatment Technology Update March 2012.

National Research Council Report (NRC Report). 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Non-indigenous Species by Ships’ Ballast Water. National Research Council Staff. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. 1, 15, 36-37, 72.

Bolch, C.J., and Hallegraeff, G.M. 1993. Chemical and Physical Treatment Options to Kill Toxic Dinoflagellate Cysts in Ships’ Ballast Water. Journal of Marine Environmental Engineering. 1:23-29.

Rigby, G.R. and Hallegraeff, G.M. 1994. The Transfer and Control of Harmful Marine Organisms in Shipping Ballast Water: Behaviour of Marine Plankton and Ballast Water Exchange on the MV “Iron Whyalla”. Journal of Marine Environmental Engineering. 1: 91-110.

Sobol, Z., Wladyslaw K., and Bohdan, W. 1995. System for Destruction of Microorganisms Occurring in Ballast Waters. Paper presented at IMO MEPC 38.

Rigby, G.R., Hallegraeff, G.M., and Sutton, C.A. 1999. Novel Ballast Water Heating Technique Offers Cost-Effective Treatment to Reduce the Risk of Global Transport of Harmful Marine Organisms. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 191:289-293.

Thornton, G. 2000. Ballast Water Decontamination-Using Heat as a Biocide. Proceedings of Sea Australia Conference. Feb 1-2, 2000. Sydney, Australia.

Mesbahi, E., Norman, R.A., Vourdachas, A., and Quilez-Badia, G. 2007. Design of a High-Temperature Thermal Ballast Water Treatment System, Proceedings of the IMechE, Part M: Journal of Engineering for Maritime Environment. 221:31-42.

Gregg, M., Rigby, G., and Hallegraeff, G.M. 2009. Review of Two Decades of Progress in the Development of Management Options for Reducing or Eradicating Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Bacteria in Ship's Ballast Water, Technical Report. Aquatic Invasions. 4(3): 521-565.

Quilez-Badia, G., McCollin, T., Josefson, K., Vourdachas, A., Gill, M.E., Mesbahi, E., and Frid, C.L.J. 2008. On Board Short-Time High Temperature Heat Treatment of Ballast Water: A Field Trail Under Operational Conditions. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 56:127-135.

Boldor, D., Balasubramanian, S., Purohit, S., and Rusch, K.A. 2008. Design and implementation of a Continuous Microwave Heating System for Ballast Water Treatment. Environmental Science and Technology. 42:4121-4127.

Balaji, R. and Yaakob, O. 2012. An Analysis of Shipboard Waste Heat Availability for Ballast Water Treatment. Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology. 11 (2):15-29.

Balaji, R. and O. Yaakob. 2015. Optimisation of a Waste Heat Exchanger for Ballast Water Treatment. Scientia Iranica. 22(3): 871-882.

Balaji, R., Yaakob, O., Adnan, F.A., and Kho, K.K. 2014. Design Verification of Heat Exchanger for Ballast Water Treatment. Jurnal Teknologi. 66(2): 61-65.

Serna, M. and Jiminez, A. 2005. A Compact Formulation of the Bell-Delaware Method for Heat Exchanger Design and Optimisation. Trans IChemE, Part A. 83 (A5): 539-550.

TEMA Standards. 2009. Tubular Exchangers manufacturers Association. 9th Edn. New York.

Mukherjee, R. 1998. Effectively Design Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers. Chemical Engineering Progress. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. February 1998.

VDI Heat Atlas. 2010. 2nd Edn. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Balaji, R. 2014. Redesign of an Exhaust Gas Economiser Using Software. Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), Transaction C. 95(3): 273-289.

Green, D. W. and Perry, R. H. 2008. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 8th ed. Section 11. New Delhi: The McGraw Hill Companies, New York.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.