Habeeb Lateef Muttashar, M. W. Hussin, Jahanger Mirza, Ghasan Fahim Huseien


This paper represents the effects of using waste generated from palm oil industries like ash, shell and fibre on the engineering properties of mortar. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) was used as cement replacement up to 60% and Oil Palm Kernel Shell (OPKS) as sand replacement in mortar mixture. The Oil Palm Fibre was added to increase the strengthening performance of mortar. The method used to find the water binder ratio was by trial and error method with 1:3 ratio of cement to sand. The cubes size of 70mm x 70mm x 70mm, beams size of 40mm x 40mm x 160mm, and cylinders size of 70mm diameter and 150mm height, were cast and tested for compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strengths of mortar. Samples were cured in water before testing it at 7, 28, and 60 days. Also, the water absorption of mortar was tested at the age of 28 days. The results showed that oil palm fibre provided more advantages and increase the strength properties especially in the flexural and tensile strength. The addition of Oil Palm Kernel Shell reduced the density of mortar and it can be used for lightweight application.  The test results also showed that as the POFA ratio increased, the compressive strength of mortar decreased. However, as OPKS ratio increased, the density was found to be decreased. The mix proportions using 60% POFA and 20% OPKS was considered as the optimum mix design. The mortar showed optimum strength at 9% with the addition of fibre.


Palm Oil Fuel Ash, biomass waste, Oil Palm Kernel Shell, Oil Palm Fibre, mortar

Full Text:



Sivakumar, A., Santhanam, M. 2007. Mechanical Properties Of High Strength Concrete Reinforced With Metallic And Non-Metallic Fibres. Cem Concr Compos. 29: 603-608.

Shafigh, P., Jumaat, M. Z., Mahmud, H. 2011. Oil Palm Shell As A Lightweight Aggregate For Production High Strength Lightweight Concrete. Constr Build Mater. 1848-53.

Sanyal, Samir, 2009. Fibre Reinforced Concrete: A New Horizon In Composite Material. Canadian Chemical News, Jan 2009.

Neville, A. M. Properties Of Concrete. Harlow, Essex, England: Wiley; 1995. OPKS31.

Sumrerng Rukzona, Prinya Chindaprasirtb, 2009. Strength And Chloride Resistance Of Blended Portland Cement Mortar Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash And Fly Ash. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials. 475-481.

Mahmud, H., Jumaat, M. Z., & Alengaram, U. J. 2009. Influence Of Sand/Cement Ratio On Mechanical Properties Of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete. Journal of Applied Science. 9(9): 1764-1769.

Kroehong, Sinsiri, Jaturapitakkul, Chindaprasirt. 2011. Effect Of Palm Oil Fuel Ash Fineness On The Microstructure Of Blended Cement Paste. Construction and Building Materials. 25(11): 4095-4104.

Hemmings, R. T., Cornelius, B. J., Yuran P, Wu M. Comparative Study Of Lightweight Aggregates. In: 2009 World Of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference 2009. Lexington, KY, USA.

Dawood, E. T., & Ramli, M, 2011. High Strength Characteristics Of Cement Mortar Reinforced With Hybrid Fibres. Construction and Building Materials. 25(5): 2240-2247.

Choy Yee Keong. 2005. Recovering Renewable Energy from Palm Oil Waste and Biogas Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery. Utilization, and Environmental Effects. 27(7): 589-596.

ASTMC330. 2009. Standard Specification For Lightweight Aggregates For Structural Concrete.

Alengaram, U. J., Al Muhit, B. A., & bin Jumaat, M. Z. 2013. Utilization Of Oil Palm Kernel Shell As Lightweight Aggregate In Concrete-A Review. Construction and Building Materials. 38: 161-172.

ACI318M-08. 2008. Building Code Requirements For Structural Concrete (ACI 318M- 08) And Commentary.

Abu, Z. 1990. The Pozzolanicity of Some Agricultural Fly Ash and Their Use In Cement Mortar and Concrete. Master Thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia. 216.

Abdul Awal, A. S. M and Hussin, M. W. 1996. Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash. 3rd Asia-Pacific Conference On Structural Engineering and Construction. 17-19 June 1996.

Alengaram, U. J. 2013. Utilization Of Oil Palm Kernel Shell As Lightweight Aggregate In Concrete–A Review. Construction and Building Materials. 38: 161-172.




Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.