H. Hadiyanto, M. A. Marsya, P. Fatkhiyatul


Microalgae Spirulina has been considered as the rich nutrition microorganism including β-carotene. The β-carotene plays an important role in human’s body as an antioxidant. The extraction of this compound from microalgae by using conventional method resulted low yield and required longer extraction time. The objective of this research was to investigate the use of ultrasound irradiation to assist extraction of β-carotene in order to accelerate the extraction process and increase the yield. The experiment was conducted by varying extraction variables such as solvent volume (20, 40, 60 ml) and extraction time (5, 15, 25 minutes) on a fixed temperature of 40°C.  The result showed that the optimum condition was at ultrasound frequency of 40kHz, extraction time of 25 minutes and ratio of biomass to solvent 1:6, while the maximum yield was 1.38 mg/mL. 


Extraction, β-carotene, ultrasonic, anti-oxidant, Spirulina

Full Text:



Mortensen, A. 2006. Carotenoids and Other Pigments as Natural Colorants. Pure Appl. Chem. 78(8): 1477-1491.

Codgell, R. et al. 2000. How Carotenoids Protect Bacterial Photosyntesis. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 355: 1345-1349.

Dey, S. and Rathod, V. K. 2012. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Β-Carotene from Spirulina Platensis. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 20(1): 271-6.

Ford, E. S, Will, J. C., Bowman, B. A., Narayan, K. M. 1999. Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Carotenoids: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am. J. Epidemiol. 149: 168-176.

Perera, C.O. and Yen, G.M. 2007. Functional Properties of Carotenoids in Human Health. Int. J. Food Prop. 10: 201-230.

Wang, L. and Weller, C. L. 2006. Recent Advances in Extraction of Neutraceuticals from Plants. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17: 300-312.

Jing, W., Baoguo, S. Yanping, C., Yuan, T., Xuehong, L. 2008. Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Wheat Bran. Food Chem. 106: 804-810.

Blitz, J. 1971. Ultrasonics: Methods and Applications. 1st edition. Butterworth, London.

Vinatoru, M. Toma, M., Radu, O., Filip, P.I., Lazurca, D., Mason, M.J.1997.The Use of Ultrasound for the Extraction of Bioactive Principles from Plant Materials. Ultrason. Sonochem. 4:135-139.

Luque-García, J. L., and Luque de Castro, M. D. 2003. Ultrasound: A Powerful Tool for Leaching. Trends Anal. Chem. 22: 41-47.

Vinatoru, M. 2001. An Overview of the Ultrasonically Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Principles from Herbs. Ultrason. Sonochem. 8: 303-313

Henriques, M., Silva, A. and J. Rocha, J. 2007. Extraction and Quantification of Pigments from a Marine Microalga: A Simple and Reproducible Method in Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology Ed: A. Méndez-Vilas, Formatex, Spain. 586-593

Davarnejad, R., Niza, N. M., Kassim, K. M., Sata, S. A., Ahmad, Z. , K. T. Lee, and M. K. Moravejia. 2012. Mass Transfer Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of β-Carotene from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 in a Bubbler Extractor. International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. 3(4): 271-276.

Tang, S. Y. and Manickam, S. 2013. Development of A Novel, Facile and Controlled Technique to Produce Submicron Multiple Emulsions of Ferrous Fumarate using Liquid Whistle Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor. American Institute of Chemical Engineering Journal. 59(1): 155-167.

Pourhossein, A. Madani, M., Shahlaei, M., Fakhri, K., Alimohamadi, P., Amiri, M. 2009. Ultrasound Assisted Pseudo-Digestion for Determination of Iron and Manganese in Citric Acid Fermentation Mediums by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Central European Journal of Chemistry. 7(3): 382-387.

Luque-Garcia, J. L., & Luque de Castro, M. D. 2004. Ultrasound-assisted Soxhlet Extraction: An Expeditive Approach for Solid Sample Treatment—Application to the Extraction of Total Fat from Oleaginous Seeds. Journal of Chromatography A. 1034: 237-242.

Cardoso, L. C., Serrano, C. M., Rodríguez, M. R., de la Ossa, E. J. M., Luis, M. Lubián, L. M., 2012. Extraction of Carotenoids and Fatty Acids from Microalgae Using Supercritical Technology. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 3: 877-883.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.