Yanti Yanti, Berti Priska Gea, Bibiana Widiyati Lay


Halitosis is associated with the excessive production of acid and volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), as well as accumulation of biofilm plaque by oral bacteria in mouth cavity. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, locally known as andaliman or lemon pepper, is an Indonesian endemic spice with high content of essential oils, including carveol that has been reported for its potential antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. We determined whether extract of Z. acanthopodium essential oil (ZAEO) exerted anti-halitosis effect on reducing biofilm plaque, acid production, and VSCs by using Actinomyces viscosus model in vitro. ZAEO was extracted in n-hexane followed by evaporation. ZAEO at various doses (20-100 µg/ml) was tested and quantified for its antibiofilm, acid production, and total VSCs production toward A. viscosus oral bacteria in vitro by conducting biofilm assays for preventing and eradicating effects, pH-stat analysis, and VSCs assay. At lowest dose (20 µg/ml), ZAEO inhibited and removed >50% of A. viscosus biofilms. A. viscosus was able to produce acid rapidly in 20 minutes, resulting in the pH terminal of 5.57, and ZAEO treatment at 40 µg/ml exerted significant inhibition on acid production with the terminal pH of 5.93, respectively. ZAEO at lowest dose also reduced >50% of total VCSs produced by A. viscosus. Our results suggest that ZAEO extract could be applied as a natural ingredient for halitosis treatment.


Actinomyces viscosus, anti-halitosis activity, biofilms, acid production, volatile sulphur compounds, Zanthoxylum acanthopodium essential oil


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