Ahmad Zulhilmi Arshad, Yusof Munajat, Sib Krishna Ghoshal, Rahman Jamal, Nor Adzimah Johdi, Raja Kamarulzaman Raja Ibrahim, Hanif Zulkhairi


Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) offers a great advantage for the analysis of biological samples. In this study, we combined THz-TDS with volatolomics analysis and analyzed 2 colon cell lines via in vitro settings. The release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured from the normal colon (CCD112CoN) and cancer colon (COLO320DM) cell lines which were grown in sealed flasks. Data validation were carried out with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) scores while the chemometric analyses were performed using Camo Unscrambler X software. In-depth THz-TDS spectral analysis of the cancer colon (COLO320DM) cell line shows significant traces of benzamide gas when validated using gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD) system. This preliminary data shows the potential use of identification and quantification of benzamide compound in the cancer colon cells and this could provide useful insight towards cancer drug design and therapy.


Volatolomics analysis, colon cancer, Chromatography, Terahertz spectra, gas analysis

Full Text:



A. Z. Berna et al. 2015. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection. J. Infect. Dis. 212: 1120-1128.

L. Guo et al. 2015. Exhaled Breath Volatile Biomarker Analysis. Transl. Res. February.

A. Krilaviciute, J. A. Heiss, M. Leja, J. Kupcinskas, H. Haick, and H. Brenner. 2015. Detection of Cancer through Exhaled Breath : A Systematic Review Literature Search. Oncotarget. 6(36): 38644-38657.

M. Phillips et al. 2015. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer , a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening. PLoS One. 1-17.

T. L. Mathew, P. Pownraj, S. Abdulla, and B. Pullithadathil, Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis. 2015.

C. Comparison. 2015. Comparison of GCMS , HPLCMS and SIFTMS in Conjunction with Multivariate Classification for the Diagnosis of Crohn’s Disease in urine. R. Soc. Chem. 7: 8379-8385.

T. Blankenstein, S. D. Lytton, B. Leidl, E. Atweh, K. Friese, and I. Mylonas. 2015. Point-of-care ( POC ) Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) using VGTest TM Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in a Routine Ambulatory Care Gynecology Clinic. Arch Gynecol Obs.

U. U. Pradhan. 2015. Breathe Analysis for Medical Diagnostics – A Review. Int. J. Innov. Res. Dev. 4(12): 240-246.

H. H. Telle, A. G. Ureña, and R. J. Donovan. 2007. Laser Chemistry: Spectroscopy, Dynamics and Applications.

R. Braakman. 2010. Gas-phase Terahertz Spectroscopy and the Study of Complex Interstellar Chemistry. 2010: August 2009.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss. 1998. Gas Sensing using Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopy. Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(3): 379-390.

C. F. Neese, I. R. Medvedev, G. M. Plummer, A. J. Frank, C. D. Ball, and F. C. De Lucia. 2012. Compact Submillimeter/terahertz Gas Sensor with Efficient Gas Collection, Preconcentration, and Ppt Sensitivity. IEEE Sens. J. 12(8): 2565–2574.

A. Danylov. 2006. THz laboratory Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption between 6% and 52% Relative Humidity. Submillimeter-Wave Technol. Lab. Univ. Massachusetts Lowell. September: 1-7.

J. Andersen, J. Heimdal, D. W. Mahler, B. Nelander, and R. W. Larsen. 2014. Communication: THz Absorption Spectrum of the CO2-H2O Complex: observation and Assignment of Intermolecular van der Waals Vibrations. J. Chem. Phys. 140(9): 091103.

S. Saito et al. 2007. Broadband Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopic System with Photoconductive Antennas. 2007 Jt. 32nd Int. Conf. Infrared Millim. Waves 15th Int. Conf. Terahertz Electron. 1(2): 475-476.

T. Guo. 2014. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Breath by Means of Terahertz Rotational Spectroscopy. Wright State University.

E. Gerecht, K. O. Douglass, and D. F. Plusquellic. 2011. Chirped-pulse Terahertz Spectroscopy for Broadband Trace Gas Sensing. Opt. Express. 19(9): 8973-84.

Y. Jiang, F. Zhou, X. Wen, L. Yang, G. Zhao, and H. Wang. 2013. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State. Downloads. Hindawi.Com. 2014: 1-24.

C. Lourenço and C. Turner. 2014. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications. Metabolites. 4(2): 465-498.

D. Zimmermann, M. Hartmann, M. P. Moyer, J. Nolte, and J. I. Baumbach. 2007. Determination of Volatile Products of Human Colon Cell Line Metabolism by GC/MS Analysis. Metabolomics. 3(1): 13-17.

B. Choudhury, A. Menon, and R. M. Jha. 2016. Active Terahertz Metamaterial for Biomedical Applications. New York: Springer Science+Business Media New York.

GLOBOCAN. 2019. The Global Cancer Observatory 2018. Geneva, Switzerland.

E. Giovannucci. 1995. Insulin and Colon Cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 618: 164-179.

P. Hamm, M. Lim, W. F. DeGrado, and R. M. Hochstrasser. 1999. The Two-dimensional IR Nonlinear Spectroscopy of a Cyclic Penta-peptide in Relation to its Three-dimensional Structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96(5): 2036–2041.

D. of E. Protection. 2014. Bureau of Environmental Cleanup and Brownfields Division of Storage Tanks REGULATED SUBSTANCES LIST.

U. S. E. P. Agency. 2015. Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right- To-Know Act (EPCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 112 (r) of the Clean Air Act.

S. M. Cristescu et al. 2011. Screening for Emphysema via Exhaled. J. Breath Res. 046009(5): 1-7.

S. Wold, M. Sjostrom, and L. Eriksson. 2001. PLS-Regression: A Basic Tool of Chemometrics. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 58: 109-130.

B. Worley and R. Powers. 2015. Multivariate Analysis in Metabolomics. Curr Metabolomics. 1(1): 92-107.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v81.13310


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.