Zawawi Daud, Mahmoud Hijab Abubakar, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, Halizah Awang, Zulkifli Ahmad, Mohd Baharudin Ridzuan


Landfills generate leachate that contains elevated concentration of contaminants and is hazardous to human health and the ecosystem. In this study, the mixture of granular feldspar and cockle shells was investigated for remediation of COD and ammonia from landfill leachate. All adsorbent media were sieved to a particle size between 2.00 and 3.35 mm. The results revealed that the optimum mixing ratio of feldspar and cockle shells was 20:20, shaking speed was 150 rpm, pH level was 6, shaking time was 120 min, and dosage was 30 g. The adsorption isotherm analysis reveals that the Langmuir isotherm yielded the best fit to experimental data as compared to the Freundlich isotherm. The media produce encouraging results and can potentially be used as a good and sustainable adsorbent.


Cockle shells, feldspar, COD, ammonia nitrogen, leachate

Full Text:



Mohajerani, Abbas, Aeslina Abdul Kadir, and Luke Larobina. 2016. A Practical Proposal for Solving the World’s Cigarette Butt Problem: Recycling in Fired Clay Bricks. Waste Management. 52: 228-244.

Othman, Norzila, Y. S. Kueh, F. H. Azizul-Rahman, and Rafidah Hamdan. 2014. Watermelon Rind: A Potential Adsorbent for Zinc Removal. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 680: 146-149.

Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, and Nur Khairiyah Basri. 2013. Removal of COD, Ammoniacal Nitrogen and Colour from Stabilized Landfill Leachate by Anaerobic Organism. Applied Water Science. 3(2): 359-366.

Daud, Z., Hatta, M. Z. M., Kassim, A. S. M., Awang, H., & Aripin, A. M. 2014. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass) by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study. BioResources. 9(1): 872-880.

Adeleke, A. R. O., Abdul Latiff, A. A., Daud, Z., Ridzuan, B., and Mat Daud, N. F. 2016. Remediation of Raw Wastewater of Palm Oil Mill Using Activated Cow Bone Powder through Batch Adsorption. Key Engineering Materials. 705: 380-384.

Adeleke A. O., Ab Aziz Ab Laatiff, A. A. Al-Gheethi., and Zawawi D. 2017. Optimization of Operating Parameters of Novel Composite Adsorbent for Organic Pollutant Removal from POME using Response Surface Methodology. Chemosphere.174: 232–242.

Habeeb, S. A., Latiff, A. A. A., Daud, Z., and Ahmad, Z. 2011. The Start-up of Hybrid, Anaerobic Up-fow Sludge Blanket (HUASB) Under a Range of Mesophiclic and Thermophilic Temperatures. Environment Asia. 4(2):

Rahaman, A. A., Latif, A. A. A., Daud, Z., Ridzuan, M., and Jagaba, A. 2016. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Cow Bone Powder for the Adsorption of Cadmium from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Materials Science and Engineering. 136(July): 1-6.

Mokhtar, N., Aziz, E. A., Aris, A., Ishak, W. F. W., & Ali, N. S. M. (2017). Biosorption of Azo-dye Using Marine Macro-alga of Euchema Spinosum. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5(6): 5721-5731.

Rddy, A. V. B., Yusop, Z., Jaafar, J., Jamil, N. H., Majid, Z. A., & Aris, A. B. 2018. Development and Validation of Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Pharmaceuticals in Different Food Samples Combining On-line and Off-line Sample Enrichment Techniques. Food Analytical Methods. 11(2): 533-545.

Rosli, M. A., Daud, Z., Awang, H., Zainorabidin, A., & Halim, A. A. 2017. The Effectiveness of Peat-AC Composite Adsorbent in Removing SS, Colour and Fe from Landfill Leachate. International Journal of Integrated Engineering. 9(3).

Ramya, R., P. Sankar, S. Anbalagan, and P. N. Sudha (2011). Adsorption of Cu (II) and Ni (II) Ions from Metal Solution Using Crosslinked Chitosan-G-Acrylonitrile Copolymer. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 1(6): 1323-1338.

Abubakar, M. H., Belel, Z. A., & Abba, H. A. 2017. Evaluation of the Groundwater Quality in Pariya. International Journal of Integrated Engineering. 8(3).

Daud, Z., Abubakar, M. H., Kadir, A. A., Aziz, A., Latiff, A., Halim, A. A., & Marto, A. 2017. Adsorption Studies of Leachate on Cockle Shells. International Journal of GEOMATE. 12(29): 46-52.

Daud, Z., Hijab Abubakar, M., Abdul Kadir, A., Abdul Latiff, A., Awang, H., Abdul Halim, A., & Marto, A. 2016. Optimization of Leachate Treatment with Granular Biomedia: Feldspar and Zeolite. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 9(37): 11-15.

Halim, Azhar Abdul, Kee Ke Han, and Marlia Mohd Hanafiah. 2015. Removal of Methylene Blue from Dye Wastewater Using River Sand by Adsorption. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology. 14(1): 89.

Latiff, A. A. A., Adeleke Abdul Rahman, O., Daud, Z., Ridzuan, M. B., & Mat Daud, N. F. 2016. Batch Adsorption of Manganese from Palm Oil Mill Effluent Onto Activated Cow Bone Powder. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11(4): 2627-2631. Retrieved from

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 2012. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association (APHA).

Halim, A. A., Aziz, H. A., Johari, M. A. M., & Ariffin, K. S. 2010. Comparison study of Ammonia and COD Adsorption on Zeolite, Activated Carbon and Composite Materials in Landfill Leachate Treatment. Desalination. 262(1): 31-35.

Daud, Z., Nasir, N., Aziz Abdul Latiff, A., Ridzuan, M. B., & Awang, H. 2016. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Coagulation-flocculation Process Using Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) and Polyelectrolyte Anionic. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11(20): 11855-11859.

Nasir, Z., and D. Z. 2014. Performance of Aluminium Sulphate and Polyaluminium Choloride In Biodiesel Wastewater. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences (JMES). 7(December): 1189-1195.

Siti Nur Fatihah Moideen, Fadhil, M., Rezania, S., Ponraj, M., Rahman, A. A., Wen, L., Zulhilmi, I., Shazwin, M., Yu-you, L., Komori, D. 2017. Dual Phase Role of Composite Adsorbents Made from Cockleshell and Natural Zeolite In Treating River Water. Journal of King Saud University – Science. 6-11.

Daud, Z., Abubakar, M. H., Kadir, A. A., Latiff, A. A. A., Awang, H., Halim, A. A., & Marto, A. 2017. Batch Study on Cod and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal Using Granular Activated Carbon and Cockle Shells. IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics. 30: 937-944.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.